Learning for employability? Ideas to reassert a critical education practice in communities
Palabras clave:Neo Liberalism, New managerialism, Employability, Hegemony, Governemtality, Community & Adult Education
This article explores the cause and effects of the increased policy emphasis on work to support employability within the field of Adult and Community Education in Scotland. This exploration is conducted from a critical perspective to demonstrate how Neo-liberalism and New Manageri- alism are reshaping the purpose and practice of Adult and Community Edu- cation and shifting its emphasis from “learning to be” to “learning to earn”. The way employability work is conceptualised will be critically examined to reveal how it can cut across what are perceived to be some of the core values and ethical commitments of Community Education such as empowerment, dialogue, and social constructivist approaches to knowledge and curriculum development. The concepts of hegemony and governmentality will be drawn on to reveal how practitioners are being shaped and disciplined by these neo liberal times and the accompanying technical rationality, potentially result- ing in the contradictory situation in which practitioners become answerable to two masters, one representing the logic of the market, and the other, the values and ethics of the profession. So to we shall conclude by arguing that Community and Adult educators need to develop a critical awareness of the effects of neo liberalism on education policy and practice so they can help people become aware of their agency and encourage their active contribute to the transformation of their social world based on their own interests, rather than working to adapt people to fit passively and uncritically into this exist- ing unequal one.
Alexander D (1994) The Education of Adults in Scotland: Democracy and Curriculum, Studies in the Education of Adults, Vol. 26 No. 1 pp 31-50.
Alexander K (1993) “Critical Reflections” Edinburgh Review: Democracy and Curriculum, Issue 90, pp. 29 – 40.
Armstrong P (1988) L’Ordine Nuovo: The Legacy of Antonio Gramsci and the Education of Adults, International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 7 No. 4 pp 249-259.
Aspin D & Chapman J (2000) Lifelong Learning: Concepts and Conceptions,
International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol.19, N0.1, pp. 2-19.
Ball S (2003) The Teacher’s Soul and the Terrors of Performativity, Journal of Education Policy, Vol.18, No.2 pp. 215-228.
Ball S (2012) Global Education inc: New Policy Networks and the New policy Imag- inary, New York, Routledge.
Biesta G (2006a) What’s the Point of Lifelong Learning if Lifelong learning has no Point? On the Democratic Deficit of Policies for Lifelong Learning, European Educational Research Journal, Vol 5, Number 3 & 4, pp-169-180.
Biesta G (2006b) Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future, Colorado, Paradigm Publishers.
Biesta G (2009) Good Education in an Age of measurement: On the Need to Reconnect with the Question of Purpose, Education, Educational Assess- ments, Evaluation and Accountability, Vol 21 issue 1 February pp. 33-46.
Bourdieu P & Wacquant L (2001) New Liberal Speak: Notes on the New Plan- etary Vulgate, Radical Philosophy Vol 105 January/February, pp 2-5.
Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (2002). Cities and Geographies of “Actually Ex- isting Neoliberalism”, Antipode, Vol. 34, No. 3, 349-379.
Brookfield S (2010) The Power of Critical Theory for Adult Learning and Teaching, Maidenhead, Open University Press.
Brown P, Hesketh A & Williams S (2003) Employability in a Knowledge Driven Economy, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 16 No.2 pp 107-126.
Clark J, Cochrane A, & McLaughlin E (1994) (Eds), Managing Social Policy, London Sage Publications.
Clark J & Newman J (2006) The Managerial State, London, Sage Publications.
Coffield C (1999) Breaking the Consensus: Lifelong Learning as Social Con- trol, British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 479-499.
Coffield F (2002) A Critical Analysis of the Concept of a Learning Society, in, Coffield F (ed) (2002), Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings Volume 1, Bristol, Polity Press.
Crowther J (2004), In and Against Lifelong Learning: Flexibility and the Cor- rosion of Character, International Journal of Lifelong Learning, Vol 23, No 2 (March-April, pp 125-136.
Crowther J (2010) Post 16 reform in Scotland: Putting the Learners at the Cen- tre?, Concept, Vol 3 No 1 Spring.
Crowther J (2012) “Really Useful Knowledge” or “Merely Useful” Lifelong Learning?, In Aspin D, Chapman J Evans K Bagnall R, eds (2012) Sec- ond International Handbook of Lifelong Learning, London, Springer.
Cunliffe A (2009) A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Management, London, Sage.
Davidson N, McCafferty P, Miller D (2010) Neoliberal Scotland: Class and So- ciety in a Stateless Nation, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Davies B & Bansel P (2007) Neoliberalism and Education, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol. 20, No. 3 May-June, pp. 247-259.
Deem R & Brehony K (2005) Management as Ideology: The Case of “New Managerialism” in Higher Education, Oxford Review of Education, Vol. 31, No. 2, June 2005, pp 217-235
Deem R, Hillyard S & Reed M (2007) Knowledge, Higher Education and the New Managerialism: The Changing Management of UK Universities, Oxford, Oxford Scholarship Online. Available here; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ acprof:oso/9780199265909.001.0001 accessed 21.2.2014
Faure E, Herrera F, Kaddoura A , Lopes H, Petrovsky A, Rahnema M, Ward F, (1972) Learning to be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow, Paris, UNESCO.
Fieldhouse R (1998) A History of Modern British Adult Education, Leicester, Na- tional Institute Of Adult & Continuing Education.
Foucault M (1980) Power and knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972 – 1977, Gordon C (ed), New York, Harvester Press.
Foucault M (1991) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, London, Pen- guin Books.
Fraser N (2000) Rethinking Recognition, New Left Review, 3 May-June, pp 107-120.
Fraser N (2013) A Triple Movement? Parsing the Politics of Crisis After Po- lanyi, New Lewft Review, 81, May– June, pp 119-132.
Gamble A (2001) Neo-liberalism, Capital & Class, Vol 25 No 75
Garrett P M (2009) “Transforming” Children’s Services? Social Work, Neoliberal- ism and the “Modern” World, New York, Open University Press.
Giroux H (2004) Public Pedagogy And The Politics Of Neo-Liberalism: Mak- ing the Political More Pedagogical, Policy Futures in Education, Volume 2, Numbers 3 & 4, pp 494-503.
Gramsci A (1991) Selections From the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, Hoare Q & Nowell-Smith G (eds) London, Lawrence & Wishart.
Grugulis I, Warhusrt C & Keep E (2004) What’s Happening to “Skill’? In War- hurst C, Grugulis I & Keep E, eds (2004), The Skills That Matter, Bas- ingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan.
Harvey D (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, New York, Oxford Univer- sity Press.
Haywood A (2012) Political ideologies: An Introduction, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan
Howarth D (2000) Discourse, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Johnson R (1988) Really Useful knowledge 1790-1850: Memories for Educa- tion in the 1980s, in Lovett T, (ed) Radical Approaches to Adult Education, London, Routledge.
Jonathan R (1990) State Education Service or prisoner’s Dilemma: The “Hid- den Hand” as a Source of Education Policy, Education, Philosophy and Theory, (22) 1 pp. 16-24.
Latham P (2011) The State and Local Government: Towards a New Basis for “Local Democracy” and the Defeat of Big Business Control, Croydon, Manifesto Press.
Levitas R (2005) The Inclusive Society: Social Exclusion and New Labour (2nd edi- tion), Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan.
Lemke T (2001) “The Birth of Bio-Politics”: Michel Foucault’s Lecture at the College de France on Neo-liberal Governmentality, Economy and Soci- ety, Vol. 30 No. 2 May, pp. 190-207.
Lloyd C & Payne J (2002) Developing a Political Economy of Skill, Journal of ed- ucation and Work, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp 335-390
Lloyd C & Payne J (2004) The Political Economy of Skill: A Theoretical Ap- proach to Develoiping a High Skills Strategy in the UK, in Warhurst C, Grugulis I & Keep E, eds, (2004), The Skills That Matter, Basingstoke, Pal- grave MacMillan.
Lynch k, Grummell B & Devine D (2012) New Managerialism in Education: Com- mercialization, Carelessness and Gender, London, Palgrave Macmillan.
Mackie G, Sercombe H, and Ryan A (2012) A Service, a “Way of Working”, or a Profession? A Discourse Analysis of Community Education/Com- munity Learning and Development in Scotland. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34:3, pp 394 – 410.
MacKinnon D (2000) Managerialism, Governmentality and the State: A Neo-Foucauldian Approach to Local Economic Governance, Political Geography Vol. 19 pp. 293-314.
Martin I (1992) Community Education: LEA’s and the Dilemmas of Possessive Individualism, in Allen G & Martin I ed’s (1992) Education and Commu- nity: The Politics of Practice, London, Cassell.
Martin I (2008) Whither Adult Education in the Learning Paradigm? Some Per- sonal Reflections, Plenary Address to the 38th Annual SCUTREA Con- ference, 2-4 July 2008, Available here http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ documents/173668.pdf accessed 18th February 2014.
Marx K & Engels F (2004) The German Ideology, Arthur C, (ed), London, Law- rence & Wishart.
McQuaid R & Lindsay C (2005) The Concept of Employability, Urban Studies, Vol 42, No 2, pp. 177 – 219.
Mills C W (1959), The Sociological Imagination, New York, Oxford University Press.
Nozick R (1974) Anarchy, State and Utopia, Oxford, Blackwell.
Olsen M & Peters M (2005) Neoliberalism, Higher Education and the knowl- edge Economy: From the Free market to Knowledge Economy, Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 20, No.3, pp 313-345
Ranson S (1992) Towards the Learning Society, Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 20 No.2 pp 68-79.
Scottish Executive (2006) More Choices, More Chances: A Strategy to Reduce the Proportion of Young People not in Education, Employment or Training in Scotland Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
Scottish Government (2011) Putting Learners at the Centre: Delivering our Ambi- tions for Post-16 Education, Edinburgh, Scottish Government.
Scottish Government (2012a) Action for Jobs – Supporting Young Scots into Work: Scotland’s Youth Employment Strategy, Edinburgh, Scottish Government.
Scottish Government (2012b) Working for Growth: A Refresh of the Employability Framework for Scotland, Edinburgh, Scottish Government.
Scottish Government (2012c) Strategic Guidance for Community Planning Part- nerships: Community Learning and Development, Scottish Government Edinburgh.
Scottish Government (No Date.) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/ Performance/scotPerforms/objectives
Simon R (1991) Gramsci’s Political Thought: An Introduction, London, Lawrence
Sissons P & Jones K (2012) Lost in transition? The Changing Labour Market and Young People not In Employment, Education Or Training, London, The Work Foundation.
Shaw M & Martin I (2000) Community Work, Citizenship and Democracy: Re-making the Connections, Community Development Journal Vol.35 No 4, October 2000 pp 401-413
Tett L (2010) Community Education, Learning and Development, Edinburgh, Dunedin.
Thomas R & Davies A (2005) Theorizing the Micro-politics of Resistance: New Public Management and Managerial Identities in the UK Public Ser- vices, Organisational Studies, Vol. 26 No. 5 pp 683-706.
Thorsen, D.E. & Lie, A. (2006) What is Neoliberalism? Oslo, University of Oslo, Department of Political Science, Unpublished Manuscript. Available here http://folk.uio.no/daget/neoliberalism.pdf accessed 21.3.2012
Wallace D (2008) Community Education: A Mirror and a Shield, in Reclaim- ing Social Purpose in Community Education: The Edinburgh Pa- pers, Edinburgh, Reclaiming Social Purpose Group. Available here:
http://criticallychatting.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/theedinburghpa- pers-pdf.pdf accessed 26.2.2014
Westwood A (2004) Skills That Matter and Shortages That Don’t, in Warhurst C, Grugulis I & Keep E, eds (2004), The Skills That Matter, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan.
Wiggan J (2013) Telling Stories Of 21st Century Welfare: The UK Coalition Government and the Neo-Liberal Discourse of Worklessness and De- pendency, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 32 No. 3 pp– 383-405.
Williams R (1977) Marxism and Literature, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Wolf A, Jenkins A & Vignoles A (2006) Certifying the Workforce: Economic Imperative or Failed Social Policy, Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 21 No. 5,S September, pp 535-565.
Aquellos autores/as que tengan publicaciones con esta revista, aceptan los términos siguientes:
- Los autores/as conservarán sus derechos de autor y garantizarán a la revista el derecho de primera publicación de su obra, el cuál estará simultáneamente sujeto a la Licencia de reconocimiento de Creative Commons que permite a terceros compartir la obra siempre que se indique su autor y su primera publicación esta revista.
- Los autores/as podrán adoptar otros acuerdos de licencia no exclusiva de distribución de la versión de la obra publicada (p. ej.: depositarla en un archivo telemático institucional o publicarla en un volumen monográfico) siempre que se indique la publicación inicial en esta revista.
- Se permite y recomienda a los autores/as difundir su obra a través de Internet (p. ej.: en archivos telemáticos institucionales o en su página web) antes y durante el proceso de envío, lo cual puede producir intercambios interesantes y aumentar las citas de la obra publicada.