"Militarism is a Movement of Retrogression": the Feminist Pacifism of Jane Addams, Mabel St Clair Stobart and Rose Macaulay in World War I
The telling of the Great War (1914-1918), mainly through the point of view of combatants, is one of the best scenarios exemplifying how women have been obviated and censored throughout history. Moreover, the engagement of pacifist women in the conflict has been doubly belittled due to a misinterpretation of the term ‘pacifism’. Consequently, this paper aims at re-examining the origins and values of pacifism from a western perspective and giving visibility to pacifists Jane Addams, Mabel St Clair Stobart and Rose Macaulay and their efforts during the event.
Abrams, L. “Ideals of Womanhood in Victorian Brittain”, BBC. August 9, 2001. [Accessed online on September 22, 2020], http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/women_home/ideals_womanhood_01.shtml.
Addams, J. Peace and Bread in Time of War, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1992
Addams, J. What War is Destroying. In Addams's Essays and Speeches on Peace. Eds. Marilyn Fischer and Judy D. Whipps. Bristol, England, Thoemmes Press, 2003.
Agnew, Elizabeth N. “A Will to Peace: Jane Addams, World War I, and ‘Pacifism in Practice’”, Peace and Change, 42:1 (2017), pp. 5-31.
Boxwell, D. A. “The (M)Other Battle of World War One: The Maternal Politics of Pacifism in Rose Macaulay's Non-Combatants and Others”. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, 12:1 (1993), pp. 85-101.
Clough, D. L. and Stiltner, B. Faith and Force: A Christian Debate about War, Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Press, 2007.
Dosenrode, S. Christianity and Resistance in the 20th Century: From Kaj Munk and Dietrich Bonhoeffer to Desmond Tutu, Boston, BRILL, 2008.
Friedrich, L. “Myth and Reality: Pacifism’s Discourse on Violence Revisited”, Studies in Christian Ethics, 31:2 (2017), pp. 186–200.
Grayzel, S. R. Women and the First World War, Harlow, Longman, 2002.
Goldstein, Joshua S. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2003.
Hallett, C. Nurses Writers of the Great War, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2016.
Liddle, P. Britain's Great War Experience: Life at Home and Abroad 1914-1918, Barnsley, Pen and Sword Military, 2014.
Macaulay, R. Non-combatants and Others, PDF file, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1916, The Project Gutenberg EBook. [Accessed online September 5, 2020], http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/35807.
Mellown, M. “One Woman's Way to Peace: The Development of Vera Brittain's Pacifism”, Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 8:2 (1985), pp. 1-6.
Newman, V. We Also Served: The Forgotten Women of the First World War, Great Britain, Pen and Sword History, 2014.
Shields, P. M. Jane Addams: Progressive Pioneer of Peace, Philosophy, Sociology, Social Work and Public Administration, Switzerland, Springer, 2017.
Smith, A. K. “‘The Mists Which Shroud these Questions’: Mabel St Clair Stobart, the First World War and Faith”, Literature and History, 20:2 (2011), pp. 1-15.
Smith, A. K. The Second Battlefield. Women, Modernism and the First World War, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2000.
Strachan, H. The Outbreak of the Great War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Tylee, C. M. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood, London, Macmillan, 1990.
Stobart, M. St. C. The Flaming Sword in Serbia and Elsewhere, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1916. PDF file, Archive. [Accessed online October 1, 2019].
Van Dame, J. Women’s Writing of World War I. Discourses of Feminism and Pacifism in Rose Macaulay’s Non-Combatants and Others and Vera Brittain’s Testament of Youth (unpublished thesis), Ghent, University of Ghent, 2017.
Woolf, V. A Room of One’s Own and Three Guineas. Edited with an Introduction and Notes by Anna Snaith, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 2015.