CONSTRUYENDO UN TERRITORIO INVISIBLE. REALIDAD Y RELATO EN LA REINVENCIÓN ARQUITECTÓNICA DEL PAISAJE ESTADOUNIDENSE / CREATING AN INVISIBLE TERRITORY. REALITY AND DISCOURSE IN THE ARCHITECTURAL REINVENTION OF THE AMERICAN LANDSCAPE

Carlos Santamarina-Macho

Resumen


RESUMEN La búsqueda de interpretaciones de su propio territorio ha sido una seña de identidad de los Estados Unidos a lo largo de la historia. Estos “paisajes estadounidenses”, tales como el espacio democrático jeffersoniano, la naturaleza salvaje o el medio oeste rural constituyeron no solo valiosas herramientas para conocer la realidad, sino también para transformarla. Tras el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial surgirá un nuevo paradigma de paisaje que trata de abordar los sustanciales cambios que estaban teniendo lugar en el territorio, y que encontrará en la arquitectura más banal y convencional su núcleo fundamental. Esta nueva idea de paisaje tomará forma a partir de una amalgama de aportaciones, muchas de ellas críticas, procedentes de las artes, la geografía y la arquitectura, articulándose como un verdadero relato comprensivo gracias a exposiciones fotográficas como New Topographics o a los textos de figuras como John Brinckerhoff Jackson, quien, con una actitud abierta y transdisciplinar, logró despertar el interés y hacer comprensibles espacios hasta entonces ignorados. El recorrido por algunos de los hitos de la producción de este moderno imaginario permite no solo comprender mejor cómo estos discursos pueden tener una incidencia real sobre la realidad espacial, sino también identificar los errores de un modo de explicar el territorio estadounidense contemporáneo que terminó legitimando aquello que estaba destinado a corregir.

SUMMARY The search for interpretations of its own territory has always been a sign of identity throughout American history. These “American landscapes”, such as Jefferson’s democratic space, the wilderness or the Midwestern countryside, served as valuable tools not only to know reality, but also to transform it. After the end of World War II a new paradigm of landscape arose to address the substantial changes that were taking place in the territory, finding its essential core in the most banal and conventional architecture. This new landscape idea originated from a pattern of mostly critical contributions from art, geography and architecture, which were articulated as a genuine comprehensive narrative thanks to photographic exhibitions such as New Topographics or the writings by figures like John Brinckerhoff Jackson. This author, thanks to his transdisciplinary and open-minded attitude, managed to raise interest about spaces theretofore ignored, making them comprehensible. Our journey through some of the milestones in the production of this modern imaginary allows us not only to gain a better understanding of the real influence of these discourses on spatial reality, but also to identify mistakes in a way of explaining contemporary American territory that ended up legitimizing what it was supposed to correct.


Palabras clave


paisaje cultural; arquitectura; Estados Unidos; fotografía; John Brinckerhoff Jackson; nuevo vernáculo / cultural landscape; architecture; the United States of America; photography; John Brinckerhoff Jackson; new vernacular

Referencias


APPLEYARD, Donald; LYNCH, Kevin; MYER, John R. The View from the Road. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1964. ISBN 0262010151.

BACHELARD, Gaston. La poétique de l’espace. París: Presses Universitaires de France, 1957. Edición en español: BACHELARD, Gaston. La poética del espacio. México D. F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2011. ISBN 978-968-16-0923-8.

BERGERA, Iñaki. New American topographics. Madrid: La Fábrica, 2018. ISBN 978-84-17048-44-0.

BERGERA, Iñaki. Twentysix (abandoned) gasoline stations. Pamplona: Museo Universidad de Navarra, 2018. ISBN 978-84-8081-599-4.

BERQUE, Augustin. La pensée paysagère. París: Archibooks + Sautereau éd., 2008. Edición en español: BERQUE, Augustin. El pensamiento paisajero. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2009. ISBN 978-84-9742-934-4.

BERTHO, Raphaële. La mission photographique de la Datar: Un laboratoire du paysage contemporain. París: La Documentation Française, 2013.

BISBAL GRANDAL, Ignacio. Fotografía y paisaje contemporáneo: conceptos y métodos. En: Proyecto, Progreso, Arquitectura, 2011, n.o 4, pp. 44-55.

BLAKE, Peter. God’s Own Junkyard. The planned deterioration of America’s landscape. Nueva York/Chicago/San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. ISBN 03-043885-3.

BUNCE, Michael F. The countryside ideal: Anglo-American images of landscape. Londres-Nueva York: Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0415104343.

COLE, Thomas. Essay on American Scenery. En: American Monthly Magazine, 1 de enero de 1836, pp. 1-12.

COSGROVE, Denis E. Social formation and symbolic landscape. Londres: Croom Helm, 1984. ISBN 0-299-15514-5.

EAMES, Charles; EAMES, Ray. Glimpses of the U.S.A., 1959.

FEININGER, Andreas. Man-made landscapes. American have changed the face of the West. En: LIFE, 5 de julio de 1948, 25(1), pp. 63-81.

FLEIS FAVA, Sylvia. Suburbanism as a Way of Life. En: American Sociological Review, 1956, 21(1), pp. 34-37.

FOSTER-RICE, Greg; ROHRBACH, John. Acknowledgments. En: Greg FOSTER-RICE; John ROHRBACH, eds. Reframing The New Topographics. Chicago: Center for American Places at Columbia College, 2010, pp. ix-xi.

GIERSTBERG, Frits. Paisajes enmarcados: misiones fotográficas europeas, 1984-2019 = Framed lasndscapes : European photography commissions, 1984-2019. Madrid: Fundación ICO, 2019. ISBN 978-84-936568-9-8.

GROTH, Paul; BRESSSI, Todd W., eds. Understanding Ordinary Landscapes. Nueva York: Yale University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0300072037.

GUYOT, Arnold Henry. Earth and Man, lectures on comparative physical geography in its relation to the history of mankind. Boston: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1849.

HOROWITZ, Helen Lefkowitz. J. B. Jackson as a Critic of Modern Architecture. En: The Geographical Review, 1998, 88(4), pp. 465-473.

HOROWITZ, Helen Lefkowitz. Traces of J. B. Jackson. The man who taught us to see everyday America. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2020.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Several American landscapes. En: Ervin H. ZUBE, ed. Landscape: selected writings of J. B. Jackson. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970, pp. 43-54.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. The westward-moving house. Three American houses & the people who lived in them. En: Ervin H. ZUBE, ed. Landscape: selected writings of J. B. Jackson. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970, pp. 10-42. Publicado originalmente en Landscape 2.3 (1953).

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. By way of conclusion: How to study the landscape. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON, ed. The necessity for ruins, and other topics. Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1980, pp. 113-126.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Preface. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON, ed. Discovering the vernacular landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984, pp. ix-xii.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. First comes the house. En: Steven A. YATES et al., eds. The Essential landscape: the New Mexico Photographic Survey. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985, pp. 13-22. Publicado originalmente en Landscape 9.2 (1960).

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Looking at New Mexico. En: Steven A. YATES et al., eds. The Essential landscape: the New Mexico Photographic Survey. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985, pp. 1-9.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Pueblo dwelling and our own. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON. A sense of place, a sense of time. Binghamton, NY: Yale University Press, 1994, pp. 27-37.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Seeing New Mexico. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON. A sense of place, a sense of time. Binghamton, NY: Yale University Press, 1994, pp. 13-25.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. The mobile home on the range. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON. A sense of place, a sense of time. Binghamton, NY: Yale University Press, 1994, pp. 51-67.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. Working at home. En: John Brinckerhoff JACKSON. A sense of place, a sense of time. Binghamton, NY: Yale University Press, 1994, pp. 135-145.

JACKSON, John Brinckerhoff. The house in the vernacular landscape. En: Michael P. CONZEN, ed. The making of the American landscape. Nueva York: Routledge, 1990, pp. 355-369.

JENKINS, William. New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-altered Landscape. Rochester, NY: The International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 1975.

JUROVICS, Toby. Same as it never was: Re-reading New Topographics. En: Greg FOSTER-RICE; John ROHRBACH, eds. Reframing The New Topographics. Chicago: Center for American Places at Columbia College, 2010, pp. 1-12.

KUNSTLER, James Howard. The geography of nowhere: The rise and decline of America’s man-made landscape. Nueva York: Touchtone, 1993. ISBN 978-0-671-70774-3.

Man Made America: A Special Number of the Architectural Review for December, 1950. The Architectural Review, 1950.

MARSH, George Perkins. Man and nature: or, Physical geography as modified by human action. Nueva York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1869.

MARX, Leo. The American Ideology of Space. En: Stuart WREKE; William Howard ADAMS, eds. Denatured visions: landscape and culture in the twentieth century. Nueva York: Museum of Modern Art; Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, 1991, pp. 62-78.

MEINIG, Donald. W., ed. The interpretation of ordinary landscapes: Geographical Essays. Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

MEINIG, Donald. W. Reading the landscape: An Appreciation of W. G. Hoskins and J. B. Jackson. En: MEINIG, Donald. W., ed. The interpretation of ordinary landscapes: Geographical Essays. Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 1979, pp. 195-244.

MENDELSOHN, Janet; WILSON, Chris, ed. Drawn to landscape: the pioneering work of J. B. Jackson. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2015. ISBN 193808635X.

MOYON, Céline; MUZARD, Florian. La Mission photographique de la DATAR nouvelles perspectives critiques. París: La Documentation française, 2014. ISBN 978-2-11-009793-4.

MULLIGAN, Therese; WOOTERS, David, eds. Historia de la fotografía: de 1839 a la actualidad (The George Eastman House Collection). Colonia: Taschen GmbH, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8365-2541-1.

NASH, Roderick Frazier. Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven-Londres: Yale University Press, 1965. ISBN 978-0-300-09122-9.

NYE, David E. America as second creation: technology and narratives of new beginnings. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. ISBN 0262140810.

RILEY, Robert B.; BROWN, Brenda J. Most Influential Books. En: Landscape Journal, otoño 1991, 2(10), pp. 173-186.

RUDOFSKY, Bernard. Architecture without architects: a short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1964. ISBN 0826310044.

SALVESEN, Britt. New Topographics. En: Britt SALVESEN; Alison NORDSTRÖM, eds. New Topographics. Göttigen: Steidl, 2009, pp. 11-67.

SHALER, Nathaniel Southgate. Nature and man in America. Nueva York: C. Scribner’s sons, 1891.

SICHEL, Kim. Deadpan geometries: Mapping, aerial photography, and the American landscape. En: Greg FOSTER-RICE; John ROHRBACH, eds. Reframing The New Topographics. Chicago: Center for American Places at Columbia College, 2010, pp. 87-105.

SZARKOWSKI, John. The Photographer and the American Landscape. The Museum of Modern Art: Nueva York, 1963.

SZARKOWSKI, John. American Landscapes. Nueva York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1981. ISBN 0-87070-207-6.

TUNNARD, Christopher; PUSHKAREV, Boris S. Man-made America, chaos or control?: An inquiry into selected problems of design in the urbanized landscape. Nueva York: Harmony Books, 1963. ISBN 0517543796.

ULLÁN DE LA ROSA, Francisco Javier. Sociología urbana: de Marx y Engels a las escuelas posmodernas. Madrid: CIS (Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas), 2014.

VENTURI, Robert; SCOTT BROWN, Denise; IZENOUR, Steven. Learning from Las Vegas: the forgotten symbolism of architectural form. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1972. Edición en español: VENTURI, Robert; SCOTT BROWN, Denise; IZENOUR, Steven. Aprendiendo de Las Vegas: el simbolismo olvidado de la forma arquitectónica. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gili, 2008. ISBN 978-84-252-1749-4.

WILLIAMS, Raymond. Communications. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1962. Edición en español: WILLIAMS, Raymond. Los medios de comunicación social. Barcelona: Ediciones Península, 2013. ISBN 978-84-9942-274-9.

WILSON, Chris; GROTH, Paul. The polyphony of cultural landscape study. An introduction. En: Chris WILSON; Paul GROTH, eds. Everyday America. Cultural landscape studies after J. B. Jackson. Los Ángeles: University of California Press, 2003, pp. 1-22.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12795/ppa.2020.i22.03

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.
';