Measuring the Existence of a Link between Crime and Social Deprivation within a Metropolitan Area

Andrea Ciacci, Giulia Tagliafico

Resumen


El propósito de la investigación, realizada en el municipio de Génova (Italia), es verificar la existencia de una relación entre delito, observado en el lugar donde se comete el acto delictivo, y privación social. En otras palabras, se pretende investigar la relación existente entre delito y privación social desde una perspectiva espacial. El delito, que se manifiesta en varias formas, se identifica en la literatura científica a partir del concepto de un “acto desviado” que puede analizarse con enfoques de base espacial, temporal y psicológica. Por su parte, la privación social es un fenómeno complejo, definido por Townsend, cuyo análisis se basa fundamentalmente en el aspecto relacional de grupos marginados y vulnerables. La principal aportación de este trabajo estriba en la alta consistencia territorial de los datos, referidos a distrito local de Génova. La metodología consiste en la realización de dos análisis cuantitativos agregados para la construcción de los índices. Por un lado, el delito se mide con la aplicación de un método de suma de variables estandarizadas, mientras que la privación social se estudia a través del método DP2. Los análisis muestran una tendencia de altos niveles de delincuencia en los distritos más cercanos al centro de la ciudad de Génova, tendencia que disminuye al desplazarse hacia la periferia. Las zonas del centro de la ciudad son las más concurridas y las más difíciles de controlar continuamente debido al intenso tránsito de personas, especialmente en las horas punta. Un resultado similar se observa en lo que respecta a la privación social: los distritos más cercanos al centro tienden a ser más críticos desde el punto de vista social, mientras que los distritos más alejados tienen un tejido social más sólido, debido también a una menor tránsito de los residentes. El trabajo puede ser un instrumento útil para ayudar a los responsables de la formulación de políticas a definir medidas oportunas y localizadas para luchar contra la delincuencia.


Palabras clave


Delincuencia; Privación social; Índice agregado; Génova

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12795/rea.2020.i40.04

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