The Microanalysis of Political Discourse


  • Peter Bull


Palabras clave:

microanálisis, imagen, labor de la imagen, modelo de destrezas sociales, géneros de la comunicación


El microanálisis representa tanto una metodología como una manera distintiva de interpretar la comunicación. En este artículo se estudia su aplicación al análisis del discurso político en relación a tres conceptos claves: el modelo de destrezas sociales de la interacción social, la imagen y la labor de la imagen, y el papel del contexto social (especialmente géneros de comunicación). A través de las técnicas del microanálisis se pueden analizar las destrezas comunicativas de los políticos, en concreto sus capacidades para llevar a cabo una labor de la imagen efectiva en diferentes contextos sociales.



Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Argyle, M., & Kendon, A. (1967). “The experimental analysis of social performance”.

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 3, 55-97.

Arundale, R.B. (2006). “Face as relational and interactional: a communication framework for research on face, facework, and politeness”. Journal of Politeness Research 2, 193-216.

Atkinson, J.M. (1983). “Two devices for generating audience approval: a comparative

study of public discourse and text”. Connectedness in Sentence, Text and Discourse,

K.Ehlich & H.van Riemsdijk (eds.), Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg papers in Linguistics,


—, (1984a). Our Masters’ Voices, London & New York: Methuen.

—, (1984b). “Public speaking and audience responses: some techniques for inviting applause”. Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, J.M. Atkinson

& J.C. Heritage (eds.), Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 370-409.

Bavelas, J.B., Black, A., Chovil, N., & Mullett, J. (1990). Equivocal Communication,

Newbury Park: Sage.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S.C. (1978). “Universals in language usage: politeness phenomena”, Questions and Politeness, E. Goody (ed.),Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 56-310.

—, (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bull, P. (2002). Communication under the Microscope: The Theory and Practice of Microanalysis, London: Psychology Press.

—, (2003). The Microanalysis of Political Communication: Claptrap and Ambiguity,

London: Routledge.

—, (2008). “‘Slipperiness, evasion and ambiguity’: equivocation and facework in non-committal political discourse. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 27(4), 324-332.

—, (2010). “Equivocation and communicative skill”, The Interrelationship of Business

and Communication, M.B. Hinner (ed.), Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang

GmbH., 69-84.

—, (forthcoming) “What makes a successful politician? The social skills of politics”, The

Psychology of Politicians, Weinberg, A. (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bull, P.E., Elliott, J., Palmer, D., & Walker, L. (1996). “Why politicians are threefaced:

the face model of political interviews”. British Journal of Social Psychology 35,


Bull, P. & Fetzer, A. (in press). “Face, facework and political discourse”. International

Review of Social Psychology.

Bull, P. & Law, H. (2009, April). “Punch and Judy politics: Face aggravation in Prime

Minister’s Question Time”, paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British

Psychological Society, Brighton, UK.

Bull, P.E., & Mayer, K. (1993). “How not to answer questions in political interviews”.

Political Psychology 14, 651-666.

Bull, P.E. & Wells, P. (2002). “By invitation only? An analysis of invited and uninvited

applause”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 21, 230-244.

Clarke, H.D., Sanders, D., Stewart, M.C. & Whiteley, P.F. (2004). Political Choice

in Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clayman, S.E. (1989). “The production of punctuality: social interaction, temporal organization and social structure”. American Journal of Sociology 95, 659-691.

—, (1992). “Footing in the achievement of neutrality: the case of news interview discourse”, Talk at Work, P. Drew and J. Heritage (eds), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 163-198.

Clayman, S. & Heritage, J. (2002). The News Interview, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Culpeper, J. (1996). “Towards an anatomy of impoliteness”. Journal of Pragmatics 25(3), 349-367.

Goffman, E. (1955). “On face-work: an analysis of ritual elements in social interaction”. Psychiatry, 18, 213-231. Reprinted in Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face to Face Behaviour,

E. Goffman (1967), Garden City, New York: Anchor, 5-45.

—, (1959/1990). The presentation of self in everyday life, first published by Anchor

Books, USA, 1959, London: Penguin Books.

—, (1967). “Where the Action Is”, Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face to Face Behaviour, E. Goffman, Garden City, New York: Anchor, 149-270.

Greatbatch, D. (1988). “A turn-taking system for British news interviews”. Language

in Society 17, 401-430.

Hargie, O.D.W. (1997). “Interpersonal communication: a theoretical framework”, The

Handbook of Communication Skills (2nd ed.), O.D.W. Hargie (ed.), London: Routledge, 29-63.

—, (2006a). “Skill in theory: Communication as skilled performance”, The Handbook of

Communication Skills (3rd edn.), O.Hargie (ed.), London: Routledge, 7-36.

—, (2006b). “Training in communication skills: research, theory and practice”, The

Handbook of Communication Skills (3rd edn.), O. Hargie (ed.), London: Routledge,


—, (ed.) (2006c). The Handbook of Communication Skills (3rd edn.), London: Routledge.

Hargie, O.D.W. & Marshall, P. (1986). “Interpersonal communication: a theoretical

framework”, The Handbook of Communication Skills (1st ed.), O.D.W.Hargie

(ed.), London: Croom Helm, 22-56.

Harris, S. (2001). “Being politically impolite: extending politeness theory to adversarial political discourse”. Discourse & Society 12, 451-472.

Heritage, J.C., Clayman, S.E. & Zimmerman, D. (1988). “Discourse and message

analysis: the micro-structure of mass media messages”, Advancing Communication

Science: Merging Mass and Interpersonal Processes, R.Hawkins, S.Pingree & J.Weimann (eds.), Newbury Park: Sage, 77-109.

Heritage, J. & Greatbatch D. (1986). “Generating applause: a study of rhetoric and

response at party political conferences”. American Journal of Sociology 92, 110-157.

—, (1991). “On the institutional character of institutional talk: the case of news interviews”, Talk and Social Structure, D.Boden & D.Zimmerman (eds), Cambridge:

Polity Press, 93-137.

Ilie, C. (2001). “Unparliamentary language: Insults as cognitive forms of confrontation”, Language and ideology, Vol. II: Descriptive cognitive approaches, R. Dirven, R. Frank & C. Ilie (eds.), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 235-263.

—, (2004). “Insulting as (un)parliamentary practice in the British and Swedish Parliaments: A rhetorical approach”, Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse, P. Bayley (ed.), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 45-86.

Johansson, M. (2008). “Presentation of the political self: commitment in electoral media dialogue”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 27, 397-408.

Jucker, J. (1986). News Interviews: a Pragmalinguistic Analysis, Amsterdam: Gieben.

Kienpointer, M. (1997). “Varieties of rudeness: Types and functions of impolite utterances”. Functions of language 4, 251-287.

Sschegloff E.A. (1989). “From interview to confrontation: observations on the Bush/

Rather encounter”. Research on Language and Social Interaction 22, 215-240.

Stewart, M.C., & Clarke, H.D. (1992). “The (un)importance of party leaders: leader

images and party choice in the 1987 British election”. Journal of Politics 54, 447-470.

The Guardian (2010, May 1). “How many watched each debate?”, 13.

Thibault, P. (2003). “Contextualization and social meaning-making practices”,

Language and Interaction. Discussions with John J. Gumperz, S. Eerdmans,

C.L.Prevignano & P.J.Thibault (eds.), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing

Company, 41-62.