Inteligencia Artificial en el Espacio Ultraterrestre: ¿Un nuevo desafío para la OTAN?

Artificial Intelligence in Outer Space: A new challenge for NATO?

Autores/as

  • Borja Montes Toscano SHAPE / OTAN

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12795/araucaria.2023.i53.12

Palabras clave:

Espacio Ultraterrestre, OTAN, Inteligencia Artificial, Responsabilidad Internacional, Militarización, Guerras híbridas.

Resumen

El Espacio Ultraterrestre está cobrando más importancia que nunca no solamente como dominio operacional, sino también por sus vulnerabilidades intrínsecas. La OTAN no busca una confrontación directa en el Espacio Ultraterrestre, sino garantizar el acceso a las capacidades espaciales necesarias para que pueda seguir cumpliendo con el mandato encomendado por sus Estados Miembros. Para ello, tanto el fomento de la interoperabilidad como de la arquitectura jurídica de la Alianza serán fundamentales.

            La Inteligencia Artificial supone un desafío importante en el marco de las relaciones internacionales no solamente por la posible asimetría entre Estados, sino también por el riesgo de impunidad y falta de atribución de posibles comportamientos “autónomos” que puedan resultar perjudiciales tanto en objetos como personas.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Métricas

Cargando métricas ...

Citas

Andrea J.DiPaolo, “The definition and delimitation of outer space: the present need to determine where “space activities” begin” en Annals of Air & Space Law, 39(2014).

Andres B. Munoz Mosquera y Nikoleta Paraskevi Chalanouli, North Atlantic Treaty – Travaux préparatoires reconstructed, Nijmegen, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2020.

Andrés B. Muñoz Mosquera y Borja Montes Toscano, “The Practice of Public International Law at NATO ‘Supreme Headquarters’” [en Jan Wouters, ed.: Legal Advisers in International Organizations, Cheltenham – Northampton, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023].

Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas, Cooperación internacional para la utilización del espacio ultraterrestre con fines pacíficos, A/RES/62/217*, 1 de febrero de 2008.

Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas, Informe del Grupo de Expertos Gubernamentales sobre nuevas medidas prácticas para la prevención de la carrera de armamentos en el espacio ultraterrestre, A/74/77, 9 de abril de 2019.

Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas, Nuevas medidas prácticas para la prevención de la carrera armamentista en el espacio ultraterrestre, A/RES/76/230, 30 de diciembre de 2021.

Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas, Reducción de las amenazas relacionadas con el espacio mediante normas, reglas y principios de conductas responsables, A/RES/75/36, 16 de diciembre de 2020.

Benjamin Silverstein, NATO’s return to space (War on the Rocks, August 3, 2020)

https://warontherocks.com/2020/08/natos-return-to-space/.

Beyza Unal, Cybersecurity of NATO’s Space-based Strategic assets (Chatham House – The Royal Institute of International Affairs, July 2019)

https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/2019-06-27-Space-Cybersecurity-2.pdf.

Bin Cheng, Studies in International Space Law, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997.

Brad Townsend, Security and Stability in the New Space Age – The Orbital Security Dilemma, London and New York, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2020.

Cassandra Steer, “Avoiding Legal Black Holes – International Humanitarian Law Applied to Conflicts in Outer Space” en 58th Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law – Eleven Journals, 2015.

Cassandra Steer and Matthew Hersch, eds.: War and Peace in Outer Space – Law, Policy and Ethics, New York, Oxford University Press, 2021.

Cesáreo Gutiérrez Espada, “La militarización del espacio ultraterrestre” en Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales, 12(2006).

Charles Powell, ‘¿Tiene futuro el orden liberal internacional?’ (Real Instituto Elcano, 29 Jun 2017)

https://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/analisis/tiene-futuro-el-orden-liberal-internacional/.

CIJ, Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France), Judgrnent, I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 253.

Dale Stephens y Cassandra Steer, “Conflicts in Space: International Humanitarian Law and its application to Space Warfare” en McGill Annals of Air and Space Law, XXX(2015).

Dale Stephens, “The International Legal Implications of Military Space Operations: Examining the Interplay between International Humanitarian Law and the Outer Space Legal Regime” en International Law Studies, 94(2018).

Dan Saxon, Fighting Machines – Autonomous Weapons and Human Dignity, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2022.

Dean N. Reinhardt, “The Vertical Limit of State Sovereignty” en Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 72(1) (2007).

Eric Sterner y Jennifer McArdle, “Cyber Threats in the Space Domain” en The American Foreign Policy Council – Defense Technology Programme Brief , 15 (March 2016).

Fabio Tronchetti, Fundamentals of Space Law and Policy, New York, International Space University – Springer, 2013.

Fabio Tronchetti, “Legal aspects of the military uses of outer space” [en Frans von der Dunk y Fabio Tronchetti, eds.: Handbook of Space Law, Cheltenham – Northampton, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015].

Frederic L. Kirgis, “NATO Consultations as a Component of National Decisionmaking” en American Journal of International Law, 73(1979).

Gwladys Fouche, Nerijus Adomaitis, ‘Joining Finland, Norway says Russia may have jammed GPS signal in Arctic’ (Reuters, November 13 2018)

https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-nordic-russia-defence-idUKKCN1NI25D.

Javier Jordán Enamorado, “El conflicto internacional en la zona gris: una propuesta teórica desde la perspectiva del realismo ofensivo” en Revista Española de Ciencia Política, 48(2018).

John W. Bellflower, “The Influence of Law on Command of Space” en Air Force Law Review, 65(2010).

Josep Baqués Quesada, “Hacia una definición del concepto de <>” en Boletín del Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos, 6 (abril-junio 2017).

Juan Manuel de Faramiñán Gilbert, “Nuevas Propuestas para el Desarrollo Sostenible en el Espacio Ultraterrestre” en Revista Española de Derecho Internacional, 73/1 (2021).

Larry M. Wortzel, The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Space Warfare (American Enterprise Institute, October 17, 2007)

https://www.aei.org/research-products/working-paper/the-chinese-peoples-liberation-army-and-space-warfare/.

Manfred Lachs, “The Law-Making Process” [en Tanja Masson-Zwaan y Stephan Hobe, eds.: The Law of Outer Space - An Experience in Contemporary Law-Making, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2010].

María Orozco Sáenz, “La solución de controversias en derecho del espacio ultraterrestre: análisis comparativo” en Anuario español de derecho internacional, 29 (2013).

Marta Bo, Are programmers in our ‘out of control’? The individual criminal responsibility of programmers of autonomous weapons and self-driving cars (Asser Institute, 2022, July)

https://www.asser.nl/about-the-asser-institute/news/research-paper-in-or-out-of-control-criminal-responsibility-of-programmers-of-autonomous-vehicles-and-autonomous-weapon-systems/

Matthew U. Scherer, “Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies and Strategies” en Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 29(2) (2016).

Michael N. Schmitt, “International Law and Military operations in Space” en Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 10(2006).

Michael N. Schmitt, ed.: Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Michael N. Schmitt, “The North Atlantic Alliance at 70: Confession and Response Revisited” en Emory International Law Review, 34 Special Issue (2019).

Michel Bourbonnière, “National Security Law in Outer Space: The Interface of Exploration and Security” en Journal of Air & Commerce, 70(1) (2005).

NATO Allied Air Command, NATO agrees new space centre at Allied Air Command (Oct 23 2020)

https://ac.nato.int/archive/2020/NATO_Space_Centre_at_AIRCOM.

NATO Allied Command Transformation, NATO Legal Gazette, 42 (December 2021).

https://www.act.nato.int/application/files/5716/4032/2170/legal_gazette_42.pdf

NATO Standardization Office, Allied Joint Doctrine for Air and Space Operations AJP-3.3 (8 April 2016)

https://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/main/standards/stanag-details/8763/EN.

NATO Standardization Office, Allied Joint Doctrine for Cyberspace Operations AJP-3.20 (29 January 2020)

https://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/main/standards/stanag-details/8739/EN

NATO Standardization Office, Allied Joint Doctrine for Joint Targeting - AJP-3.9 (9 November 2021)

https://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/main/standards/ap-details/2821/EN.

NATO Standardization Office, Training in the Law of Armed Conflict - ATrainP-2 Edition B (26 June 2019)

https://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/main/standards/stanag-details/8947/EN.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 16 Allies, Finland and Sweden launch largest space project in NATO’s history (16 Feb 2023)

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_211793.htm.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Comité Militar de la OTAN enfocado hacia las operaciones, capacidades y cooperación

https://www.nato.int/ims/docu/mc-brochure-for-mccs-spain-07.pdf.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Interoperability: connecting forces (22 Feb 2022) https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_84112.htm#:~:text=NATO%20defines%20%22interoperability%E2%80%9D%20as%20the,tactical%2C%20operational%20and%20strategic%20objectives.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, London Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in London 3-4 December 2019 (01 Jul 2022)

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_171584.htm.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO Deputy Secretary General thanks Iceland for its contribution to European security (08 Mar 2017)

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_142025.htm?selectedLocale=en.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO 2022 Strategic Concept Adopted by Heads of State and Government at the NATO Summit in Madrid 29 June 2022 https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/2022/6/pdf/290622-strategic-concept.pdf

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Standardization (14 Oct 2022) https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_69269.htm.

Office of the Secretary of Defense, Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2018 (2018) https://media.defense.gov/2018/Aug/16/2001955282/-1/-1/1/2018-CHINA-MILITARY-POWER-REPORT.PDF

R. Ventaka Rao, V. Gopalakrishnan y Kumar Abhijeet, eds.: Recent Developments in Space Law – Opportunities & Challenges, Singapore, Springer Nature, 2017.

Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, Electronic and Cyber Warfare in Outer Space (UNIDIR, Space Dossier 3, May 2019)

https://unidir.org/sites/default/files/publication/pdfs//electronic-and-cyber-warfare-in-outer-space-en-784.pdf.

Ram S. Jakhu y Paul Stephen Dempsey, eds.: Routledge Handbook of Space Law, London and New York, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2017.

Rubén García Servert y Francisco José Rubio Bravo, El espacio como dominio operacional en la OTAN (Academia de las Ciencias y Artes Militares)

https://www.acami.es/publicacion/el-espacio-como-dominio-operacional-en-la-otan/.

Ruwantissa Abeyratne, Space Security Law, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2011.

Steven Freeland y Ram S. Jakhu, “The Applicability of the United Nations Space Treaties during Armed Conflict” en 58th Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law – Eleven Journals, 2015.

Thomas Gangale, “Who Owns the Geostationary Orbit?” en Annals of Air and Space Law, XXXI(2006).

Tim McFarland, Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Law of Armed Conflict, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Ugo Pagallo, Eleonora Bassi y Massimo Durante, “The Normative Challenges of AI in Outer Space: Law, Ethics, and the Realignment of Terrestrial Standards” en Philosophy & Technology, 36(2) (2023).

Yves Sandoz, Christophe Swinarski y Bruno Zimmerman, eds.: Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987.

Descargas

Publicado

2023-05-25

Cómo citar

Montes Toscano, B. (2023). Inteligencia Artificial en el Espacio Ultraterrestre: ¿Un nuevo desafío para la OTAN? Artificial Intelligence in Outer Space: A new challenge for NATO?. Araucaria, 25(53). https://doi.org/10.12795/araucaria.2023.i53.12
Recibido 2023-04-10
Aceptado 2023-04-11
Publicado 2023-05-25
Visualizaciones
  • Resumen 585
  • PDF 211