• 123 •
Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales
ISSN: 1696-0270 • e-ISSN: 2340-4973
Eduardo Infante Rejano
Universidad de Sevilla
Maria-Claudia Scurtu-Tura
Universidad de Sevilla
Annabel Jiménez-Soto
Universidad de Sevilla
Mónica Santana
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
The aim of the present study is to conduct
a systematic review and analysis of
the literature on gifted adults to explore
the state of research in this area. A
bibliometric science mapping tool,
based on co-word analysis and h-index,
is applied using the Science Mapping
Analysis Software Tool (SciMAT). Initially,
661 articles published between 1948
and 2022 were retrieved from the Web
of Science (WoS). Rened by English
language and specic descriptors,
376 results were considered, and 28
themes and 32 clusters were identied
as signicant in the giftedness literature.
Supported by life-span studies and earlier
work on ability, data analysis revealed
that adult giftedness is an emerging topic
of research with a tentative development
only a decade ago. The emergence of
studies on giftedness in adults appears
to be driven not only by cognitive testing
(i.e., intelligence studies) or achievement
research, but also, and more recently, by
life satisfaction studies and the use of
qualitative methodologies.
Keywords: adult giftedness,
bibliometrics, SciMAT, h-index, thematic
evolution, science mapping analysis
El objetivo del presente estudio es reali-
zar una revisión sistemática y un análisis
de la literatura sobre adultos con altas ca-
pacidades para explorar el estado de la
investigación en esta área. Se aplica una
herramienta de mapeo cientíco bibliométri-
co, basada en el análisis de co-palabras y el
índice h y se utiliza el software de análisis
de mapeo cientíco (SciMAT). Inicialmente,
se recuperaron de Web of Science (WoS)
661 artículos publicados entre 1948 y 2022.
Renados por idioma inglés y descriptores
especícos, se consideraron 376 resulta-
dos y se identicaron 28 temas y 32 grupos
como signicativos en la literatura sobre las
altas capacidades. Los análisis de datos re-
velaron que el área de las altas capacida-
des en adultos es un tema de investigación
emergente hace solo una década y nace
tímidamente respaldado por los estudios
evolutivos y aptitudinales. El origen de esta
área de estudio resulta ser impulsado no
solo por pruebas cognitivas (es decir, estu-
dios de inteligencia) o investigación sobre el
rendimiento, sino también, y más reciente-
mente, por estudios que se centran en cues-
tiones relacionadas con la satisfacción en la
vida y el uso de metodologías cualitativas.
Palabras claves: altas capacidades en adul-
tos, bibliometría, SciMAT, índice H, evolución
temática, análisis de mapeo cientíco.
Cómo citar este artículo/ citation: Infante-Rejano, Eduardo; Scurtu-Tura, María-Claudia; Jiménez-Soto, Annabel;
Santana, Mónica (2023). No Name, no Fame: A Bibliometric Analysis of Publications of Giftedness in Adults.
ANDULI. Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales, (24), 123-149. https://doi.org/10.12795/anduli.2023.i24.06
Recibido: 11.05.2023. Revisado: 15.06.2023 Aceptado: 25.06.2023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12795/anduli.2023.i24.06
Anduli • Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales Nº 24 - 2023
• 124 •
1. Introduction
The advance of gifted studies in early stages of basic education is a fact that contrasts
with the few attempts at expanding what is already known about giftedness in adults.
Despite the growing interest in research in the last decade on how giftedness evolves
in adulthood (Fiedler, 2015; Brown et al., 2020), there is a widespread opinion that
there is still a great deal to learn from gifted adults (Alshehri, 2020; Bazler et al., 2015;
Rinn & Bishop, 2015; Silverman, 2013). As stated by Perrone and her team, there is a
clear paucity when it comes to refer to the empirical research focusing on gifted adults
(Perrone et al., 2007). This is certainly surprising when ponder the question of where
all investment in effort and resources throughout the educational system end up after
the formal period. In the end, gifted education is about helping gifted individuals to
be successfully eminent in their future personal and working lives for the sake of
society (Subotnik & Rickoff, 2010). Consequently, the scientic community should be
aware of the extent to which gifted adults are being left apart. If is unable to identify,
understand, and assist gifted adults, they will never succeed in fullling their natural
skills and therefore, turning early identication into a waste of time. Although many
cases are yet to be unveiled, there are informal estimations indicating that at least
one out of two gifted adults will fail or quit from tertiary education while other survey
documents gure University gifted underachievers between 50 and 70% (Infante,
While there is a great deal of surprising information posted via Internet blogs about
the characteristics of gifted adult people, the scientic community rarely comments
on gifted adults nor gifted workers. Few exceptions are recent research on creativity,
emotional intelligence, or coping styles of intellectually gifted adults (Angela &
Caterina, 2022; Schlegler, 2022). However, scientic debate about giftedness after
adulthood is rare, and training programmes for gifted children are limited to specic
talent competitions - usually called Olympiads, contests, tournaments, or fairs - that
take place alongside formal, ofcial education. The research evidence regarding the
education of gifted and talented children is predominantly based on high cognitive
ability and academic testing. However, strategically adapted curricula are seldom
implemented in adulthood, when the concept of exceptional talent becomes evident.
Under a coaching perspective in both adult social and work spheres, it seems as
if giftedness concept would have replaced by that other of talent after childhood
and, in doing so, the consideration of a certain kind of high skills throughout the
general population is democratised. Both universities and organizations promote
talent programmes, many of which encourage any individual to look for a specic
talent regardless IQ. In addition, the decrease in academic demands enables high
academic achievements for everyone, and, therefore, moving talent assessment
towards the subjective concept of working competence (Kabalina & Osipova, 2022).
Talent identication and evaluation process through competences lead practitioners
to consider that talent and related phenomena can be trained and not naturally gained.
For instance, impostor syndrome that was once associated with highly gifted and
successful working women of managerial positions (Clance, 1985; Clance & Imes,
1978), is being linked today to general working samples with some studies that even
stating that between 58 up to 70% of working people experience the phenomenon at
one point in their lives (Bravata et al., 2019).
Talent and giftedness are terms that need to be further distinguished in their
denitions and perspectives. While coaching eld uses a rather motivational point
of view in the attention to adults, there is an urgent need to recover long traditional
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• 125 •
literature on cognitive testing and to be able to properly apply it to adult groups (Rayo
Lombardo, 2015). Most of the previous studies, however, are just based on youth IQ
scores, standardised test scores, academic grades, or adult accomplishments with
lack of adequate group comparisons (Rinn & Bishop, 2015). For instance, Terman’s
classic longitudinal study with 1,500 gifted children, while certainly inuential in the
eld, did not include individuals from underprivileged backgrounds and most of the
selected children were White and of middle-to-upper class socioeconomic status
(Terman, 1925). In 1971, the American psychologist Julian Stanley from the Johns
Hopkins University conducted another longitudinal study with several cohorts that
were tracked 3 times at several ages. More than 5,000 children were selected based
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) in the Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY)
survey. While general research has certainly found high SAT´s scores indicative of
high IQ (Frey & Detterman, 2004), the use of an academic selection criterion may
leave behind many gifted underachievers. Another known attempt was longitudinally
conducted by Perrone and colleagues in 1988 (published in 2010a), when they
carried out a study that followed up with students for more than 20 years. While
the production was prolic to acknowledge relevant aspects of gifted adult lives, the
extent of those was limited by the lack of inclusion of other psychometric measures
other than academic graduation rankings (Perrone et al., 2007, 2010b, 2012). In a
more recent study, Maggie Brown and colleagues specically explored the research
with gifted adults using a Delphi technique (Brown et al., 2020). In general, problems
with a disciplinary denition of gifted adult itself, disconnection between research
and practice, and fragmentation of the eld were identied by the international
respondents. Precisely, experts agreed on holistically and qualitatively expanding the
concept of gifted adult beyond cognitive skills to capture the complexity of adulthood.
Therefore, sound indicators of adult giftedness referring to both cognitive and
non-cognitive assets are still pending to be discovered and improved at the light
of expanded denitions of giftedness to also include an individual´s potential and
behaviour excellence in the measurement with various methodologies. Precisely, the
prospective work should focus on the ways to identify gifted individuals by means of
both traditional testing and multisource direct, external criteria that must also include
screening tests to avoid time-consuming practices.
Identifying gifted adults is an important duty of education agents and scientists for a
variety of reasons. First, from the individual point of view, many adults are unaware
of their high skills and remain unproductively silent and awkwardly different on a daily
basis. Identifying their giftedness can help them to increase self-awareness and social
integration. Second, the understanding of giftedness in adults will certainly help us to
erase their potential social maladjustment as being very different from the rest and
therefore, ameliorate their mental health. Finally, and perhaps most relevant, gifted
individuals that are scientically identied can contribute positively to their society
with excellence. People do not really exist until you name them. Gifted adults are
a minority group still to be dened and understood. For some, this group accounts
for only 2% of the total population while most optimistic researchers increase the
prevalence up to 20% (Infante, 2015).
In this line of discourse, the present study aims to explore the state of research in
this area through a systematic review and analysis of the literature on gifted adults.
To date, there have been no studies in this eld that have used performance analysis
and science mapping to directly address sets of terms shared by articles and reviews.
In doing so, the literature is mapped directly from the interaction of key terms.
This is the rst science mapping analysis in the eld of adult giftedness to show
Anduli • Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales Nº 24 - 2023
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its conceptual structure and literature development, using research performance
measurement or bibliometrics. Bibliometrics is the discipline that quanties the
performance of a researcher, a collection of selected articles, a scientic journal or an
institute. Ideally, research performance is a broad assessment that takes into account
a range of quantitative metrics and combines them with qualitative data. Quantitative
metrics are emphasised because they facilitate the comparison, both objectively
and globally, of all that is important in an effective bibliometric study. Bibliometric
analysis is recognised as a powerful method for describing publishing trends and
highlighting relationships between published papers. Using statistics, bibliometrics
unravels and displays the cumulative scientic knowledge and evolutionary nuances
of subject areas from a large volume of unstructured data. Bibliometric methods can
be divided into two categories: evaluative and relational. Evaluative bibliometrics are
used to describe characteristics of published information such as the evolution of a
topic (Ninkov et al., 2022) while Relational bibliometrics provide an overview of the
relationships between different actors (Stuart, 2014) by examining common metadata
occurrences (citations, keywords, authors, etc.). A co-word analysis was carried out
using a longitudinal framework. This produced strategic diagrams to categorize the
themes identied in relation to giftedness in adults. Furthermore, constructing a map
of relationships of giftedness could show us areas that are close to each other and
facilitate the creation of new connections between them.
The aim of this study is to explore the themes that have been the focus of research on
high abilities in adults throughout history. By examining the literature and conducting a
comprehensive bibliometric analysis, we aim to identify the key areas of investigation
and understand the evolving trends and patterns in the study of giftedness in the adult
population. This exploration will provide valuable insights into the research landscape
and shed light on the topics that have garnered signicant scholarly attention, as well as
uncover potential gaps or emerging areas of interest in the eld of adult high abilities.
2. Method and materials
To accomplish our purpose and to reach scientic conclusions, rst it was performed
an analysis of science mapping for detecting and visualizing conceptual subdomains.
Mapping analyses were done with SciMAT an open-source software tool, proposed
by Cobo et al. (2012). It has three key features: (1) one module dedicated to the
management of the knowledge base and its entities (document, author, afliation,
keyword, reference, author of reference, source of reference, period, etc.), (2) another
module responsible for carrying out the science mapping analysis, and (3), a nal
module to visualize the generated results and maps. SciMAT knowledge includes 16
entities: afliation, author, author group, author-reference, author-reference group,
document, journal, publish date, period, reference, reference group, reference-
source, reference-source group, subject-category, word, and word group. A rigorous
step-by-step analysis was followed to reach scientic conclusions based on data
search, data renement, standardization and creation of the network, map creation,
analysis and visualization, and performance analysis.
Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection was used to run SciMAT analyses. Compared
with Scopus (another popular database used for bibliometric purposes), WoS has
good coverage of publications (Harzing & Alakangas, 2016) and an extensive reach
in social sciences literature (Norris & Oppenheim, 2007). Consequently, appropriate
publications linked with the main topic were selected using the following keywords:
“gifted” and “adult”, “gifted” and “worker”, “gifted” and “employee”, “talent” and “adult,”
Artículos • Eduardo Infante Rejano, Maria Claudia Scurtu Tura, Annabel Jiménez Soto, Mónica Santana
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“eminent adult”, “high achieving adult”, “adult divergent thinking”, “adult creative
thinking”. This advanced search retrieved 661 (review) articles from 19481 to 2022.
Only English (632) written items were selected for the purpose. Considering WoS
categories, 376 results were considered for the next step (Table 1).
Table 1. Web of Science rened elements.
Document types (661) Article 620
Review article 41
By language (632) English 632
Web of Science categories (376)
Education Special 128
Psychology Educational 68
Education, Educational Research 61
Psychology Multidisciplinary 57
Management 20
Neurosciences, Psychology 19
Psychology Social 14
Behavioral sciences 9
Note. Source: own elaboration.
In an attempt to follow the on-going research on adult giftedness, three periods have
been considered for the following analyses; (a) from 1948 to 2000; (b) from 2001 to
2011, and (c), from 2012 to 2022.
It can be admitted that consolidation of IQ measures can be dated in 1948 when
so-called Flynn effect -i.e., continuous increase of IQ in 4.4 points every decade-,
forced practitioners to interpret people´s results by using adjusted IQ score ranges
(Tuddenham, 1948) The rst period ends in 2000, at the advance of the so-called Era
of Neurology in applied sciences, where neural evidence in the neuropsychology of
intelligence was shown that clearly inuenced the scientic community’s denition
of intelligence beyond psychometric properties (Craggs et al., 2006; De Mirandés,
2016; Pickersgill, 2013). Therefore, the concept of human intelligence was redened
in a multidimensional and integrated way so as to include brain-based evidence
affecting mind functioning such as emotional intelligence, self-awareness, anxiety
or motivation. A paradigmatic shift from the positivist conception of intelligence took
place in gifted education from identication to transaction paradigm (see Lo & Porath,
2017). The third period under consideration in the present analysis begins in 2012
and encompass a critical 10-year period to apprehend the impact of the effects of the
twenty-rst century education of digital generations (see Renzulli, 2012).
The data renement and reduction step are aimed at identifying incorrect, duplicate,
or misspelled items and so 376 items were obtained. For the standardization and
creation stage, a co-occurrence network standardized through the equivalence index
was used. Then, simple center algorithms were employed to obtain the science map
and its clusters (Coulter et al., 1998). The co-occurrence frequency of two keywords
was extracted from document corpora by counting the number of elements where the
1 The initial year is embedded in the Space Race period between U.S. and former U.S.S.R. and
precisely, 1948 is remembered for having sent the rst monkey into Space and thus making the
dream of reaching the moon for human beings closer. Since then, U.S. federal funding has been
targeted to support programmes to develop talent within this competitive scope (Roberts, 1999).
Anduli • Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales Nº 24 - 2023
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two keywords appear together. This can be used to build co-word networks (Krsul,
1998) associated with research themes using clustering tools. Then, the co-word
analysis is based on the computation of the co-occurrence keywords frequencies.
I. Detection and visualization of research topics
To identify research-related themes in each period, the algorithm of simple centers
was applied to a normalised network of co-words analysis of all articles and reviews
processed by WoS. The grouping process locates networks of keywords that are
highly interconnected and that correspond to areas of interest or research problems
that are of great interest to researchers. Detected themes are visualized using
graphics of strategic diagrams and thematic networks (Cobo et al., 2011). The
strategic diagram shows the detected clusters of each period in a two-dimensional
space and categorizes them according to measures of density and centrality (Callon
et al., 1991). Centrality measures the degree of interaction of a network with other
networks and can be seen as a measure of that theme’s importance in developing
the entire research eld analyzed. Density collects the internal strength of the network
and represents a measure of the theme’s development. Considering both measures,
four groups of research themes are derived. First, motor ones (top right) referring to
strong centrality and high-density values; second, specialized or peripheral (upper
left) depicting well-developed internal ties and unimportant external ties, not relevant
to the advancement of the eld; third, emerging or disappearing (lower left) identifying
both weakly developed and marginal, with low density and centrality; and nally basic
or transversal themes (right lower) showing important but not sufciently developed
themes (Figure 1). The volume of the spheres is proportional to the number of
documents corresponding to each keyword.
Figure 1. Strategic diagram of SciMAT (Cobo et al., 2012).
Highly development and
isolated cluster
Motor clusters
Emerging or declining
Basic and transversal
Note. Source (Cobo et al., 2012).
II. Thematic areas
At this stage, the evolution of the research topic over a series of time periods is rst
established. It is then analised to identify the main areas of evolution of the archived
research, their origins and their interrelationships. This allows us to discover the
conceptual, social or intellectual relationships of the eld of interest.
Artículos • Eduardo Infante Rejano, Maria Claudia Scurtu Tura, Annabel Jiménez Soto, Mónica Santana
• 129 •
III. Temporal or longitudinal analysis – evolution map and overlapping graph
SciMAT can provide the evolution map and the graph of overlapping objects to
visualize the major trends in the eld, their origins, their interrelationships, the target
audience and the evolution of the research. To do this, the inclusion index is used
to detect links between research topics in different time periods and, in this way, to
identify thematic areas in the research eld. In addition, as each theme is associated
with a set of documents, each thematic area could also have an associated collection
of documents, obtained by combining the documents associated with its set of
themes. Thus, the evolution map shows the temporal evolution of research topics,
and the overlapping graph represents the number of associated keywords.
By dividing the raw data into different consecutive periods of years, the evolution of
the research eld could be analysed in a longitudinal way.
3. Results
The presentation of the results was divided into four categories: general bibliometrics
(document production, author production and performance, and the most prolic
journals), thematic networks and representation of themes, thematic areas, and
temporal or longitudinal analysis – evolution map and overlapping graph.
3.1. General bibliometrics
The most prominent, productive, and highest impact subelds can be established
by measuring bibliometric performance indicators such as the number of published
documents, number of citations, and h-index (Alonso et al., 2009).
Document production
The rst results of this bibliometric analysis show the volume of documents published
in the periods studied, the number of citations and the h-index proposed by Hirsch
(2005), which measures both the productivity and the impact of citations on
As Table 2 and Figure 2 show, the number of articles in the eld has been growing in
the last decades. There were found 65 papers for the rst period, 109 for the second
and 202 for the third. This is not the case for the number of citations, where there is an
increase from the rst period (3,150) to the second (5,299), but a substantial reduc-
tion in the third period (2,843).
Table 2. Document production per period.
Periods Nº Documents % of total Nº Citations
1 (1948 – 2000) 65 17.29 3,150
2 (2001 – 2011) 109 28.99 5,299
3 (2012 – 2022) 202 53.72 2,843
All (1948 – 2022) 376 100 11,292
Note. Source: own elaboration.
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Figure 2. Evolution of document production per period.
Note. Source: own elaboration.
Author´s production and performance
The most prolic authors are shown in Table 3. A total of 904 authors were identied
through the following data: number of publications in the area, citations of these
documents, total number of citations per author’s publications and their h-index.
Table 3. Production and performance by authors (1948-2022).
Author Nº documents Nº citations Total citations Total h-index
Lubinski, D. 10 792 2,272 26
Benbow, C.P. 7 420 6,661 44
Worrell, F.C. 5 450 3,053 27
Vannatter, A. 4 23 23 3
Subotnik, R.F. 4 450 996 14
Olszewski-Kubilius, P. 4 450 1,291 18
Votter, B. 3 27 30 2
Wirthwein, L. 3 62 597 14
Rost, D.H. 3 62 1,001 18
Schnell, T. 3 43 937 15
Note. Source: own elaboration.
According to these gures, 1.1% of the total number of authors encompass 12.2% of
total publications in the eld of giftedness (and related terms), thus fullling Lotka’s
bibliometric law for his author selection by which there is a tendency towards a
bibliometric rate of 20-80 (i.e., 20% of authors yielding 80% of production) (Lotka, 1989).
Precisely, four longitudinal studies stand out in Lubinski´s research work referring to
the evolution of maths abilities, vocational interests, creative, occupational, and life
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• 131 •
accomplishments, and values (Lubinski et al., 1995; Lubinski et al., 1996; Lubinski
& Benbow, 2006; Lubinski et al., 2006). In almost a four-decade research periods,
Lubinski and his colleague Camilla Benbow second most prolic author from our
list- have proved the power of psychological assessments at age 12 in predicting adult
accomplishments and contributions at least in the academic realm and assuming that
talents are cultivated. Therefore, our data also indicates that prevalent research is
aimed at documenting gifted children becoming gifted adults with few attempts to
analyse unidentied adults as gifted themselves (Alshehri, 2020).
The most prolic journals
Table 4 summarizes the most prolic journals related to the area. The analysis
identied a total of 184 items with four journals accounting for more than 25% of
paper production: Gifted Child Quarterly (36 documents), Roeper Review – A Journal
on Gifted Education (34 documents), Journal for the Education of the Gifted (25
documents) and Frontiers in Psychology (18 documents). Despite the variety of
journals with publications in the area, just these four journals alone accumulated to
one-third of the production.
Table 4. Most prolic journals.
Journal Country
documents % of total IF IF (last 5
Gifted Child Quarterly USA 36 9.57 2.409 2.982
Roeper Review – A Journal on
Gifted Education GB 34 9.04 0.64 0.61
Journal for the Education of the
Gifted USA 25 6.64 0.61 0.65
Frontiers in Psychology Switzer-
land 18 4.78 4.232 4.426
High Ability Studies UK 9 2.39 1.563 1.859
Journal of Advanced Academics USA 9 2.39 0.91 0.97
Journal of Counseling and
Development USA 7 1.86 2.455 3.152
Personality and Individual
Differences UK 6 1.59 3.95 4.276
Psychology of Sport and
lands 6 1.59 5.118 5.147
International Journal of Sports
Science & Coaching UK 6 1.59 2.029 2.294
Note. Source: own elaboration.
3.2. Thematic networks and themes representation
The cluster information identied for the whole network and for the performance over
the whole period (1948-2022) is presented in the tables below. Specically, as Table 5
shows, the networks more connected with giftedness (centrality) are students (84.49),
disorders (79.17) and intelligence (67.05) and the least connected are eudaimonia
(4.23), gifted adults (5.65), and high-IQ (7.54). The most developed themes with
internal network strength (density) are disorders (37.16), stress (33.33), and high-IQ
(26.67) and the less developed are performance (3.66), gender (6.27), and validity
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Table 5. Performance measures (1948-2022).
Name Centrality Density Document
Disorders 79.17 37.16 35 13 844
Sport 45.37 21.54 61 19 2,566
Counseling-psychology 34.09 22.87 60 22 2,879
Students 84.49 10.09 127 22 1,984
Children 66.13 10.72 107 28 3,063
Experiences 52.31 9.69 53 19 1,534
Intelligence 67.05 24.02 60 19 1,301
Motivation 38.57 15.5 48 15 1,580
Performance 46.66 3.66 77 22 1,944
Gender 41.8 6.27 61 19 1,068
Development 54.89 11.83 46 16 2,027
Gifted-adults 5.65 11.84 25 8 206
Stress 24.14 33.33 14 5 152
Autism 16.91 10.79 25 11 770
Validity 26.57 6.41 24 11 220
High-IQ 7.54 26.67 8 8 122
Eudaimonia 4.23 16.67 11 6 1,252
Characteristics 10.64 14.44 11 8 250
Note. Source: own elaboration.
On the other hand, most of the documents published during the whore study period
are about students (127 document, h-Index of 22 and 1.984 citations), children (107
documents, h-Index of 28 and 3.063 citations), and by far, about performance (77
documents, h-Index of 22 and 1.944 citations).
Table 6 shows the information regarding the most relevant documents found in the
studied area, according to the number of citations. Within subareas of giftedness,
papers refer to studies on ability, well-being, clinical neuropsychology, gifted
education, and personality.
Table 6. Most cited documents (1948-2022).
Document title Authors Year Journal
Varieties of numerical abilities Dehaene, S. 1992 Cognition 1,227
Psychological Well-Being
Revisited: Advances in the
Science and Practice of
Ryff, C.D. 2014 Psychotherapy and
Psychosomatics 911
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Adolescent cortical development:
A critical period of vulnerability
for addiction
Crews, F., He, J., &
Hodge, C. 2007
Biochemistry and
Rethinking Giftedness and Gifted
Education: A Proposed Direction
Forward Based on Psychological
Subotnik, R.F.,
P., & Worrell, F.C.
Science in the
Public Interest
Personality trait development
from age 12 to age 18:
Longitudinal, cross-sectional,
and cross-cultural analyses.
McCrae, R.R.,
Costa, P.T.,
Terracciano, A.,
Parker, W.D., Mills,
C.J., De Fruyt, F. &
Mervielde, I.
Journal of
Personality and
Social Psychology
Note. Source: own elaboration
First period analysis: 1948-2000
During this period, four pivotal themes were identied: two motor ones (counseling-
psychology and ability), one right in the center of the diagram (adolescents) and
the last one, men, which could act as either an emerging or declining theme within
the research eld (Figure 3). Sphere size is proportional to the number of published
documents linked to each research theme.
Figure 3. Strategic diagram by document counts during rst period (1948 – 2000).
Note. Source: own elaboration using SciMAT software.